CONSONANTS

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

 

Postalveolar

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Pharyngeal

Glottal

 Plosive

p b

p b

 

t d

t d

 

k g

k g

q

q

 

ʔ

~

 Nasal

m

m

 

n

n

 

 

 

 

 

 Trill

 

 

r

r

 

 

 

 

 

 Fricative

 

f v

f v

θ

th dh

s z

s z

ʃ ʒ

sh

 

x ɣkh gh

 

ħ ʕ

H

h

h

Approximant

 

 

 

 

 

j

y

 

 

 

 

Lateral approximant

 

 

 

l

l

 

 

ʟ

L

 

 

 

Affricate

 

 

 

tʃ dʒ ch j

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Consonants transcription

 

Other Symbols:

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative (emphatic F)

F

 

w Voiced labial-velar approximant

w

Dental Voiceless dental stop, described in Arabic phonology as emphatic t

T

R: This symbol is used when r is rendered as ɣ phoneme, in order to distinguish it from the original gh letter in Arabic.


Emphatic consonants:

This is a complex topic where Arabic dialectologists dont seem to agree on. Traditionally, some consonants which velarised or pharyngealised were considered to be emphatic. Additionally, some consonants have acquired allophones when followed by back vowels such as l in Allah.

To simplify the transcription, I have capitalised the consonant to indicate an emphasis. This includes both emphatic consonant phonemes which have a distinct letter in Arabic and others with no separate phoneme in Arabic orthography, for example B as in BABA and N as in NAbi, the rendering of nabi, a prophet, in the Hebrew pronunciation

 

Notes:

The table follows the IPA conventions published by UCL.

The letters in bold and italic are those used in the transcription of JI phonemes in this paper.